Basic Components of Elevator (Elevator Car)

We all know that Elevator is installed in every high-rise building, but do you know the components of Elevator and how it works? Being a Mechanical engineer and having experience with elevators, I will share my fondness of knowledge with you on my blog website.

Let me help you with the World of Elevator, and we will discuss each component of the Elevator one by one.

Standard Elevators have these main components:

  • Elevator car
  • Hoist Way
  • Machine and drive system
  • Control system
  • Safety system

I will describe each component with you briefly.

Today we will discuss Elevator Car.

What is an elevator car?

The elevator car is one of the Elevator’s main components; it lifts humans and goods from one floor to another floor of the building. The elevator car is also known as the cabin. It is a heavy steel frame cabin that sustains the weight of people and other goods to lift people or goods within the building.

What are the types of elevator cars?

The primary types of elevator cars are classified according to entrances.

They are classified into these three types:

1.  Normal cabin

The Normal elevator car or cabin has only one entrance; in this type of cabin, only one door is installed; that’s why we call it is a standard cabin.

2.  Open through cabin

Open through the cabin is the second type of elevator car or cabin; it usually has two entrances means two doors in opposite directions. That’s why we call it open through a Car or Cabin.

3.  Diagonal cabin

The diagonal cabin is the third type of elevator car or cabin; it also has two entrances, which means only two doors, but one entry is in a horizontal position, and another is in a vertical position. Both the doors are diagonal to each other.

Concepts of the area for elevators car

Car width (CW)

Car width is the horizontal dimension between the inside walls of the elevator car. It is measured parallel or to the front of walls. Note; Always measure one (01) meter above the car floor.

Car height (CH)

Car height is inside the Vertical dimension of the cabin; it is measured between the entrance threshold and the Roof of the elevator car. Note; False ceiling and light fitting are also included in the vertical dimension.

Car Depth (CD)

Car depth is the horizontal dimension between the inner surfaces of the car, which is measured at the right angle to the car width. Note; measurement should be 1m above the car floor.

What are the standard sizes of cars?

The reason why we should consider the standard size of cars is to avoid overloading. The area of the elevator car must be according to the weight of persons or goods. To prevent accidents, we must have to maintain the standard size of a car.

Here is the formula to find the number of people who should lift in an elevator according to rated weight.

Number of Passengers = Rated Load / 75kg

Here, in this formula, the rated load is the maximum load the elevator car can bear.

“75kg” is the average standard weight of the person.

Here are two types of standard sizes you can see in the below:

Rated Load= Q (kg)

CW (mm) = Width in millimeter

CD (mm) = Depth in millimeter                         

Let’s apply the formula.

Number of persons = 320 / 75 = 4

With rated load 320, you should carry four (04) persons maximum to avoid accidents and overloading

Main components of an elevator car

The main components of the elevator car are mentioned below.

Here are three main components of an elevator.

1. Car Sling

A car sling is a metal framework that is connected with an elevator car. Its main working principle is to carry the load and isolate it from mechanical vibrations produced during the operation of elevators.

Types of car sling

The most common types of car slings are

(1:1 suspension)

1:1 suspension always have only one drive pulley

That’s why it’s called one-way suspension.

(2:1 suspension)

2:1 suspensions have two pulleys that distribute the load.

Main components of car sling

Upper Transom

As I mentioned above, that car slings are divided into two types (1-1 suspension) and (2-2 suspension). So the upper transform also has a different working mechanism according to the type of suspension.

Usually, pulley rope has a 360mm diameter which is connected with the upper transom. In the upper transom design guide, shoes and rollers are also installed, which move according to the guide rail.

The upper transform system breaking system is also installed; it helps in emergency cases, and the system catches the clamp to avoid any accident.

Lower Transom

The lower panel of the sling is called the lower transom. The working of the lower transom is to isolate mechanical vibration with the help of isolated springs. The isolated springs control the running vibration. Safety gear catch clamps are also mounted with a lower transom for safety purposes.

Side Frame

Two side frames are installed; one is on the right side, another is on the left side. The working of the side frame is to adjust the alignment of the elevator car.

2. The elevator cabin

Elevator cabin is the second name of an elevator car. Don’t be confused; both are the same thing.

3. Mechanical Accessories

Mechanical Accessories of elevator car are mentioned below

  • Guide shoes
  • Door protective devices
  • Car door and door operators

We will discuss different components of the Elevator, which are very necessary to understand the concept of how an elevator works?

So be in touch with my blog/article website and YouTube Channel for growing yourself from basics.

Moreover, You can watch a free elevator course in the form of tutorial videos in Urdu/Hindi language for easy understanding on my YouTube Channel

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